Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2016

Enter the Biotope Aquatic Design Co...

Biotope Aquatic Design Contest has an amazing collection of biotope aquarium entries from around the world.  Not only is the aesthetic design wo...

ketapang leaves

Leaf Litter Botanicals Benefit Aqua...

Ketapang Botanicals Aquarium Benefits of botanical additives have been acknowledged for a very long time. More people should experience and utilize t...


Writers and Photographers

Freelance Writers Biotope One is looking for writers for online magazine articles.  Topics include aquariums, terrariums, and indoor plant displays l...

Why did my cryptocoryne die?

Why Did My Cryptocoryne Melt?

Why Did my Cryptos Melt? A common question I get is from aquarium keepers asking why their cryptocorynes have turned into a goo.  Usually, it invol...

Enter the Biotope Aquatic Design Contest Now!

Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2016

Biotope Aquatic Design Contest
 has an amazing collection of biotope aquarium entries from around the world.  Not only is the aesthetic design world class upper tier but the biotope aspect is second to none.  As one of the most important contests in biotope aquascaping it draws a lot of attention from big names within the hobby.  The results of these labors are magnificent and rivaled only in nature itself.

Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2016Anyone can enter the contest.  Each contender can enter up to 5 currently existing biotope aquariums.  Competition is staunch among the detail-oriented competitors and it really shows off in the entries.  Even if you do not enter the competition you absolutely must peruse through the aquaria that were created to showcase these magnificent recreations of biotopes from around the world.  It is also an excellent resource for ideas for your own setups.

Various points are awarded in the contest for different aspects of the biotope aquarium.  Not only does the design need to be harmonious and pleasing to be competitive it also much be accurate.  Plants and animals alike must come from the same areas and cohabitate in the same waterways as being depicted.  Tank inhabitants have to be healthy, stocked in appropriate numbers, and in a tank size suitable for them.  All this is not an easy task.

Biotope Aquarium Design Contest 2016Some of the biggest names in the hobby judge the aquarium entries.  Collective biotope experience and knowledge the judges bring is immeasurable to the aquarium hobby.  Judges for this contest really know their stuff.  Yuriy Yancher, Ivan Mikolji, and Heiko Blessin are a few among the jury of 10.

Prizes total more than 3,000 euros and trophy certificates will be awarded to the top 50 entries.  Simply participating in such a contest is reward enough for many.  Some of the categories are Cold Water, Wild Trophy for rarely kept species, and an Eco Trophy for extinct or endangered biotopes in addition to the normal biotopes.

The entry deadline is coming up soon.  The deadline is October 31 and the judging will continue until November 15.  November 20th the judges will announce the placements and winners!  If you are considering entering it’s time to get going at it.  Regardless of whether or not you enter, and you should if you build biotopes or are interested in them, check out the past entries.  They are amazing!

Leaf Litter Botanicals Benefit Aquariums

Ketapang Botanicals Aquarium

ketapang leavesBenefits of botanical additives have been acknowledged for a very long time. More people should experience and utilize their effectiveness in the aquarium. Botanicals give nutritional value, health benefits, security benefits for the shrimp and fish, and provide excellent aesthetics in any tank. They really shine in a natural styles aquarium.

Leaves used for Ketapang Botanical are hand selected and prepared by skilled and knowledgeable collectors especially for the aquarium. Each species is collected at the optimal time, dried, sorted, and trimmed by hand. Each batch is as fresh as the last and we refuse to purchase in warehouse bulk lots for that reason. We bring you top quality botanicals in the best condition possible sourced from pesticide free, insecticide free, natural conditions.

Catappa leaves

ketapang leavesCatappa leaves, also known as Ketapang, are great for adding tannins and leaf litter to your tank. Not only does the leaf litter add depth and aesthetics to your tank it also offers many other great health benefits. Shrimp and small fish and fry love to hide amongst it for security.

For Bettas, simply drop in a piece of leaf 1 to 2 inches square for each gallon.Other larger aquariums add 2 to 3 medium to large size leaves per 25 gallons.

The leaves will become waterlogged and sink after a couple days if not boiled beforehand. Once it begins to sink it will start releasing its tannins and other beneficial compounds. Many fish and shrimp will eat the leaf for its nutrients. When the leaf has nearly been dissolved add another dose. You can leave the old parts in or take them out.

Guava Leaves

guava leavesGuava leaves are a great food source for shrimp and fish in the aquarium and many species love eating the biofilm the leaves create. These leaves contain polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Carotenoids have been suggested in scientific studies to aid spawning health of both the parent and the offspring.

Guava leaves produce less tannins than catappa leaves and last longer in the aquarium before breaking down. If you prefer a lighter tannin color try Guava leaves. They can be boiled for a few minutes to help them sink right away if you prefer. Shrimp will enjoy feeding on the leaves after being boiled for several minutes.

Katahal Leaves

Jackfruit Katahal LeavesIt seems that most all the leaves we utilize in our aquariums provide some medicinal or antibacterial and antifungal properties. Leaves of the Katahal, which is also known as the Jackfruit tree, are no different and also have healing properties for human use.

Originating from south India, Katahal is from the same family as the Mulberry tree and has many positive uses in the aquarium. For fish, they have great nutritional value in the leaves and in the surface growing biofilm.

These tropical botanicals make a great addition to any aquarium with shrimp or fish, young or old. Killifish, Apistogramma, and other dwarf cichlids love them at 1 to 2 leaves per 10 gallons of aquarium volume. Like most other leaves it is recommended to boil them for a couple minutes to help them sink faster in the aquarium.

Catappa Bark

Catappa BarkBark from the Catappa tree is a great way to increase tannins in your water and to add health benefits. These dried strips of Catappa bark are great for conditioning breeding fish and adding a natural look to your aquarium.
Boil the strips for about 10 minutes to get the tannin release started and add them to your tank. The benefits last for many weeks and there’s no need to withdraw them when you add more.

Plant material has demonstrated in studies that the decomposing organic materials release beneficial minerals as well as beneficial fungi and bacteria to decompose it. This organic matter is a great food for infusoria and shrimp and fish fry thrive when eating it.

Banana Leaves

Banana leavesOne of the lightest tannin additives known but don’t let that fool you.  Banana leaves offer many benefits and Betta breeders use them for many reasons.  These dried leaves are used to condition Betta scales and fins to improve their health.

Writers and Photographers

Freelance Writers

WritingBiotope One is looking for writers for online magazine articles.  Topics include aquariums, terrariums, and indoor plant displays like wabi kusa and living plant walls.  We’re looking to add a few articles in the 750 to 1200 word range.

Many readers of Biotope One are also explorers and adventurers.  If you have notes or information you would like to submit to be edited into articles please contact us.  We can work together to get your information and experiences edited into a format that can be published.  We will give you full credits.  We can take the information from you and craft an article, even if you don’t like to write.


PhotographerPhotographs accompany articles so well, and we are looking for photographs to go along with articles.  Photos of your expeditions and adventures make great articles.

If you enjoy capturing biotopes, specimen photos, or related pictures you think we might be interested in drop us a contact.  Perhaps you captured a project you were creating in pictures.  Get in touch with us and see if we are interested in crafting an article for the website.

Many times we can craft an article working with you if you don’t like to write.  Working together we can develop an article that we can publish on our site.  You will receive full credits for your contribution.

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Why Did My Cryptocoryne Melt?

Why Did my Cryptos Melt?
Why did my cryptocoryne die?

A common question I get is from aquarium keepers asking why their cryptocorynes have turned into a goo.  Usually, it involves either newly acquired plants or plants that have been moved around in an established tank.  It is a common occurrence and it isn’t always a loss.

Cryptocoryne can grow either submerged, under water, or emersed above the water line.  The plant would lose a lot of energy if it kept its current form of foliage when transitioning to the opposite type of growth.  So what happens in the plant just tosses it aside and grows a better adapted leaf set.

Cryptocorynes sport a rhizome that stores nutrients much like a potato does.  As long as the rhizome is healthy and sufficient it will regrow new foliage.  Crypts are really a hardy plant but they don’t like environment changes very much.  They have a form of survival that just involves throwing the old out and starting new.  As long as they don’t undergo too many changes too frequently they should be fine.

The cryptocoryne that has spent too much time in the mail is the real test.  Often they have already turned into a booger looking blob with a hard root.  If you rinse that melted leaf off and plant it somewhere stable you might be surprised that it sports new growth soon.  Remember that not all cryptocoryne are fast growers so be patient.  Don’t be too fast to throw it out.  It just might surprise you.


Plant Tissue Culture Project

Plant Tissue Culture Project

Cryptocoryne undulata in vitroEvery day we lose 100 plant and animal species to deforestation.  Palm oil plantations, timber cutting, and development are destroying jungles and forests at an incredible rate.  Destruction has left us with only 1/3 of Earth’s forests.  Plants are not like animals that can move around during deforestation.

Cultivated plants would be available to hobbyists and collectors.

Biotope One is beginning a Plant Tissue Culture Program to bring plants into cultivation.  Many endemic plants are not scientifically described or even cultivated.  Plant hunters also collect many wild plants to sell.  Tissue Culturing plants would reduce wild collecting. Cultivated plants would be available to hobbyists and collectors.  We are already seeing bucephalandra, a common aquarium plant, getting harder and harder to find in the wild.

Plant Tissue Culture, also known as micropropagation, involves taking a small amount of plant tissue and growing it in a sterile environment.  The plants are manipulated causing them to grow and multiply easily.  One plant can exponentially turn into thousands of plants in a short amount of time.

Deforestation LossBringing the cost of these plants down significantly would reduce or stop collecting in the wild.

Plant species disappear faster than they can be saved.  Natural habitat is also being poached or over collected.  Many plants do not have any protections against them.  Tissue Culture would provide a safety net in the wild and provide a resource for hobbyists to obtain plants from instead of wild collected plants.  Bringing the cost of these plants down significantly would reduce or stop collecting in the wild.

Every day we lose 100 plant and animal species to deforestation.

Biotope One has begun acquiring the materials needed for Plant Tissue Culture.  It is our intent to start with several cryptocorynes, bucephalandra, and eriocaulons.  After the pants have been successfully initiated into jars of media they will be multiplied.  Multiplying involves splitting up old containers into multiple new containers.  When sufficient vessels are made it is possible to grow them out emersed or pass them along to hobbyists.  Everything is done indoors, on shelves, with lights.  No snails, pests, or diseases.

Hobbyists, aquascapers, collectors, and other Plant Tissue Culture individuals are welcome to engage us about the project.  If you have any questions or comment please feel free to let me or one of the other team members know.

If you have any questions or comment please feel free to let me or one of the other team members know.


Nilwala Basin Sri Lanka Biotope Tank

Nilwala Basin Sri Lanka Biotope Tank

by Jeroen Vanhooren

overviewBiotope: Near the riverbank of a small stream in the Nilwala basin (Sri Lanka)

Dimensions: 70*50*35 (l*d*h)

Technical description:

Lightning: An Aquatlantis Easy Led 6800 K (28 W) – on timer control.

Filter: An internal sump with two sizes of filtration media and biological filtration medium. A pump of 100 liters per hour circulates the water.

Substrate: Brown aquarium gravel one to two millimeters in size.  Different sized rocks, a log, leaves and some alder cones were used.

Sri Lanka Biotope
Water change: Automatic with 2 episodes of adding fresh water each day by a dripping system.

Temperature: Controlled by an aquarium heater of 200 W. Water temperature in these streams is relatively cool  at 24-26°C and is fairly constant. This is due to stable air temperature and shade of overhanging forest canopy.

Plants: Lagenandra thwaitesii and Cryptocoryne beckettii

Fish: Puntius titteya along with Pethia nigrofasciata

Sri Lanka AquariumBiotope description: This aquarium simulates the riverbank in a small stream of the Nilwala basin at an elevation of around 200 m. At this elevation Pethia nigrofasciata and Puntius titteya could be found together. They are endemic to the wet zone in south western Sri Lanka and inhabit the lowland tropical rainforest streams there.  Huge amounts of rainfall occur in the wet zone because of the monsoons between March and August.

These streams are shaded because of the overhanging forest canopy. Water is slightly acidic, soft, and clear.  There are only a few macrophytes in these areas but marginal vegetation could be dense. It is an ideal place for smaller fishes to hide from predators like Channa orientalis.

Typical substrate is sandy with some small rocks and a layer of leaf litter.

Other fish  found in these streams are Rasboroides vaterifloris, Puntius bimaculatus, P. kelumi, Pethia nigrofasciata, Dawkinsia singhala, Schistura notostigma, Mystus vittatus, Aplocheilus werneri, Channa orientalis, Malpulutta kretseri, and Mastacembelus armatus.

Sadly enough the Sri Lankan rainforest is under a terrible amount of threat to habitat. In 2006 only 4.6 % of the original rainforest was intact as a result of plantation activity. This is of course quite impactful for these vulnerable ecosystems.

Cryptocoryne Ferruginea var Sekadau

Cryptocoryne Ferruginea var Sekadau

by Slamet Supriadi
cryptocoryne ferruginea

Cryptocoryne ferruginea I found in its natural habitat.

Cryptocoryne ferruginea can be found growing in streams and tributaries in Sekadau, West Kalimantan province of Indonesia. Often growing under a large tree.  This narrow leaf plant found growing on the bank and river bed is becoming more common in the  aquarium hobby but still hasn’t found the popularity that many other species of cryptocoryne have with hobbyists.

This was at first thought to be a cryptocoryne ideii but later was determined to be a different species.  With cryptocorynes, it may be difficult to identify them without a flower to positively identify.

Natural Habitat

When the habitat of this cryptocoryne is flooded and the plants are underwater the leaves are a solid green.  During the dry season, when it arrives, the plants will not be flooded so that the leaves are a nice shade of purple.  There can also be veining between the purple areas to add texture to the leaves with enough lighting provided.  In the right conditions they are a beautiful cryptocoryne.

cryptocoryne ferruginea

Cryptocoryne ferruginea in my collection likes low lighting.

Likes Low Light Levels

Like most cryptocorynes, they don’t need high levels of light to grow and prosper.  In the home aquarium, lower to medium levels of lighting should produce nice growth.  If provided with proper nutrients and lighting the leaves can become quite brilliant.  A lux reading of about 3000 to 6000 is enough light for this shade hardy plant.  My best results came from using 12 hours on for lighting and 12 hours off at night to let the plants rest.

Tolerates Wide Range of PH Levels

I have found this plant in a wide variety of PH ranges, but this aquatic aroid is mostly found in softwater streams.  It is reported to have been observed in water with a PH in the 7 range.  The plants tolerance of a wide PH makes it suitable for most hobbyists to keep in aquariums or emersed in wabi kusa or terrariums.

cryptocoryne ferruginea

Cryptocoryne ferruginea stands about 3 inches.

Soil is Heavy in Organics

Soil composition it is found in is a mixture of clay and decomposed plant matter naturally.  In the aquarium it can be kept in most plant substrates easily.  Grown emersed it does well in a good quality potting mix that drains well but retains moisture well.  High humidity is a must, like other cryptocorynes.  Emersed plants in a tray partially submerged do well as do pots sitting in a layer of water sufficient to keep the soil wet.

Add This to Your Collection

If you find this plant available you should add it to your tank or collection.  It is a beauty in the aquarium and is easy to maintain in a variety of conditions.  It should really be more available but perhaps many people still don’t know about this wonderful plant.

A World of Eriocaulon Aquarium Plants

A World of Eriocaulon

by Bernd Marks

Variety ErioUnfortunately Eriocaulons are still a marginal phenomenon in the hobby, and they really don’t deserve this status.  For almost 2 years I have kept E. shiga, E. sieboldianum, E. polaris,  E. sulawesi sp, and E. goias. In the course of time I have made the additions to include: Needle leaf, Feather duster, bushy green, Malaytor, Ha’Ra, Vietnam and parkeri. Currently some new babies are also growing from Parviflorum, Black ball, Heimesilatama and more.

My eriocaulons tanks are exclusively soft water with a maximum kh of 2. For six months I can also use my tap water for it.  Only magnesium do I have to add to make my plants happy.

Nutrients are administered regularly and I do not aspire particularly to have overly high values. Nitrates are approximately 10 mg / l and PO4 in small amounts are sufficient. With Fetrilon and a complete fertilizer, the regimen of my fertilization is completed.

I won’t be going into detail or dwell on the naming of the eriocaulons. Erios are like Bucephalandra, even with the named Erios, if something is amiss I still use the name name from under which I got it.

Eriocaulon sp Sulawesi

Erio Sulawesi

Erio Sulawesi

Short story about this form is it was once imported by two brothers but it died out and was lost to the hobby. That which is available to collectors now, was years ago brought in through Italy from Asia and imported under the same designation. The few existing photos of the original sp sulawesi however suggest that they are different plants.

Maximum height is 3 cm, it is hardy permanently submerged and good at lawn making.  It is though, slow growing. Propagation is by adventurous runners and seed would also be possible as an occasional flowering appears.

Eriocaulon Shiga and Sieboldianum

Erio Shiga

Erio Shiga

These two I would like to deal with together as they are very similar.  Max diameter is 8-10cm and they are hardy as permanently submerged. In both of these there is no submerged flowering!   An important difference to cinerum, sp and Polaris is that there is not flowering in submerged shiga and sieboldianum.   The round stature can sometimes be disturbed by their numerous side shoots. However, therefrom they always produce new plantlets.

Shiga and sieboldianum begin at a certain size (about 5cm) to differ from that of sieboldianum as the blade tips are curved downward. Moreover sieboldianum is colored slightly darker.  Depending on the conditions submerged, it is possible that sieboldianum temporarily sets upwards its leaf tips. Shiga, however, has never sent its leaf tips upward and it has a little fresher green.

Erio sieboldianum

Erio sieboldianum

Overall sieboldianum is somewhat less demanding than shiga and some grew quite joyfully.  When moving into a new tank its leaves die from the outside toward the inside.  However, new leaves are soon growing out of the middle

Eriocaulon australia I have rejected because it was not possible to distinguish them from the Shiga. It is supposed to be possible for very large plants, since the blade tips are to hang somewhat in Australia. Whether I will try that again is not clear.

Eriocaulon Polaris

Erio polaris

Erio polaris

Maximum diameter is 10-12 cm and has darker leaves than shiga and like a hedgehog has erected leaves that stand. The leaves are thicker and more robust than what is found in shiga and sieboldianum.

Unfortunately polaris doesn’t grow permanently under water and will die after some time. It tends to push upward a flower formation and from there it is super exciting. The Polaris provides no new foliar growth and only pushes up the stalk. But that is not the end. There is a possibility that the buds grow adventitiously and create new plants. If polaris secures its health you should allow it to grow on its own. Cut the new plant fast and share the plant can be successful.  The formation of side shoots is rare with her, and I’ve experienced it only once.  Anything is possible, and this is why the Erios fascinate me.

Eriocaulon Needle Leaf and Feather Duster

Erio Needle Leaf

Erio Needle Leaf

Although they can be in appearance clearly different, they have many similarities to each other.  Your grassy look is somewhat reminiscent of Helferis Cyperus.  Needle leaf has of the two the most significantly broader leaves, about 5mm at the widest point.

Feather duster brings it more narrow with a width of about 2-3mm.  Needle leaf also achieves a submerged height of 50cm and can reach effortlessly to the surface. Feather duster attains a slightly shorter height of around 40 cm.

The proliferation of both of these plants is by abundant side shoots from the rhizome so that beautiful new bushes arise .  Flowers I had not yet experienced in my plants. However adventitious growth of a needle leaf, on one stalk grew.  An economical and easy representative of Eriocaulon, the growth rate is considerably high for the normally slow rate of growth most Erios make.

Eriocaulon Malaytor and Bushy Green

Erio Malaytor

Erio Malaytor

So far I can not see much if any difference so I will summarize both of them here.  However beautiful, these Erios demands its rightful place. Currently, I can report a total height of about 20cm. She is always bushy so they are rather something of a  solitary planting

Reproduction came forth from runners growing from the rhizome.  The Malaytor once pushed up a stalk, where then grew small adventitious plantlets. Simultaneously offshoots grew increasingly from the rhizome.  The motherplant died over some several months.

Eriocaulon Parkeri

Erio parkeri

Erio parkeri

With the average plant around 6-7 cm, it has a stellate appearance and it is quite a looker in the front area.  This Erio counts with me to be the rather easy-care Erios.

Propagation is via independent rhizome division, and is accompanied by the bustle of flowering stems. This new growth can be left as is, or it can be pulled with a little jerk from the plant. It does not matter.
Under extremely good conditions they can actually reach 10 cm, that is for me so far the longest but only once reached that far. Then it also shows beautiful long, light green leaves. Under less favorable housing conditions, the leaves can be short, dark, and resemble a green stinger.

Eriocaulon Vietnam / Taiwan

Erio Vietnam or Thailand

Erio Vietnam or Thailand

With these two we have two different names but in my view, they are identical plants.  The Vietnam / Taiwan is the easiest and best multiplication of  all Erios.  I’ve had the height reach almost 12 cm.  It is ideal for the foreground, or even a background in a nano setup. The dark green leaves are also circularly arranged, however perhaps irregular.  So far, there was no flowering.

Eriocaulon Goias

Erio Goias

Erio Goias

Goias is a jewel among the Eriocaulon.  With a height of up to 15 cm and bright green leaves, it is a focal point in any aquarium.  The symmetrical design makes it look very orderly.  With sufficient light and nutrients along with good water values they are quite possible. Who wants to tease out this jewel should simply offer it everything!

Flowering I have never had with her never, but I know of plants with flower stalks with adventitious plantlets.  Multiplication with me so far has only been from the rhizome. However, the mother plant is not dead and I have kept it in my care for about two years.


I have purposely omitted technical terms. This is supposed to be well understood by anyone.  These are all my own experiences and observations, but I am for the exchange of ideas with the handful of lovers of Eriocaulons.  So now you know my addiction and worst vice: Eriocaulons.

Multiplying Eriocaulon Plants by Division

Dividing Eriocaulon to Produce New Plants

by Bernd Marks

Eriocaulon polarisI have kept a variety of eriocaulon for a couple years.   Erio’s are a marginalized aquarium plant and it should be more popular with hobbyists for many reasons.  First of all, they are easy to keep and secondly they are rather easily multiplied by dividing a plant with multiple crowns.  This is how I divided an Eriocaulon goias. Unfortunately, I wasn’t very mindful and there were 2-3 crowns formed so  I only divided it into two.

Use a sharp knife and cut cleanly and straight through where you see the plant divided.  The important thing is to divide the plants correctly.  The leaves show a circular pattern for each plant. In between the new plants is where you need to cut.

If you don’t do this properly there is a good chance the plant will not become the full beauty of a single clean plant.  Trim off the old and dark roots and back to the aquarium it goes.

Dividing Eriocaulon

Koyna and Krishna River Confluence Biotope

Koyna and Krishna River Confluence Biotope

by Jeroen Vanhooren

Koyna and Krishna River Confluence BiotopeBiotope: Small tributary of the Koyna river near the confluence with Krishna river (India)

Dimensions: 70*50*35 (l*d*h)

Technical description

Lightning: 1 x Aquatlantis Easy Led 6800 K (28 W) – time controlled.

Filter: Internal sump with 2 sizes mechanical filtration media and a biological filtration medium. Pump with flow of 700 l/h used to circulate the water.

Substrate: light colored gravel combined with cobbles of different sizes.

Water change:  Automatic with 2 episodes of adding fresh water each day by a dripping system.

Koyna and Krishna River Confluence Biotope FishWater temperature: This stream is 23-27°C, depending on time of year with highest temperatures generally in pre-monsoon period.  Water temperature is controlled by a aquarium heater of 200 W and will be variable during year.

Plants: none

Fish: Botia striata and Devario aequipinnatusis

Biotope description: This aquarium simulates a small tributary of the Koyna river near the confluence with Krishna river. Koyna river originates near Mahabaleshwar and is one of the major tributaries to the Krishna river. Koyna River flows in a southward direction for about 65km, turns sharply eastwards at Helwak, in which direction it flows until its confluence with the Krishna River at Karad.

Stream velocity, temperature and pH in these streams are driven by monsoon. The water in this small stream that drains into Koyna river is well oxygenated and relatively soft.

Koyna and Krishna River Confluence AquariumTemperature is fluctuating 23-27°C, pH 6,8-7,5. No macrophytes can be found in this system. River bottom consists of gravel and cobbles of different sizes.

Botia striata and Devario aequipinnatusis live sympatric with several other fish species in these waters (Labeo porcellus, Puntius jerdoni, Rohtee ogilbii, Schismatorhynchos nukta, Tor khudree and Neotropius khavalcho and many, many more). Cyprindae are the dominant group with the beautiful endemic Puntius sahyadriensis, which seems to be dissapeared in the hobby.

Koyna river system is relatively less threathened by anthropogenic pressure, although fishing pressure, tourism and organic pollution in some parts of the river could not be neglected. A major part of the Koyna River backwaters is also protected by the Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary.